and sales of traditional biomass fuel are a very significant source of income
for many people. Activities in which they are engaged range from wholesales
of wood and charcoal from licensed depots to roadside vending of fuel to
transportation of wood by back or headload.
is a strong correlation between type of activity and gender, with women
concentrated in the least secure, most arduous and low paid activities.
This was particularly the case in Ethiopia, where women are mainly engaged
in the manual transportation of fuel and in small scale vending activities
that are characterised by lack of a secure vending space, harassment from
authorities and little bargaining power.In both Kenya and Uganda, representation
of women in the motorised transportation, one of the most lucrative fuel
supply activities, was minimal.
high level of vulnerability of fuel suppliers has important implications
for fuel substitution policies and measures that are designed to reduce
levels of traditional fuel use. If those policies and measures succeed in
reducing demand for traditional fuel, it is likely that those relying on
fuel supply for their livelihood will suffer the most.
fuel substitution policies appear not to have been effective in reducing
demand for traditional fuel. One possible reason for this is that urban
populations are increasing, and there are a number of lower income households
who are unable to afford modern fuels and appliances.
brought together a team
of experts from the UK, Kenya, Ethiopia and Uganda.
|The project was funded by the UK Department for International Development DFID's Knowledge and Research programme (Contract No. R8019)||For more information on DFID and the Knowledge and Research Programme, click here.|
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